RSI/Ergonomics References



Aiello I., et al. (1988). Tonic Neck Reflexes on Upper Extremity Limb Flexor Tone in Man. Experimental Neurology, 101, 41-49.

Berqvist, U., Wolgast, E., Nilsson, B., & Voss, M. (1995). Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal workers: individual, ergonomic, and work organizational factors. Ergonomics, 38, 763-776.

Faucett, J. & Rempel, D., (1994). VDT-related musculoskeletal symptoms: Interactions between work posture and psychosocial work factors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 26, 597-612.

Fine, L. J. (1996). Musculoskeletal disorders in office work. In: Moon, S. D. and Sauter, S. L. (Eds). Beyond Biomechanics (pp 295-305). London: Taylor & Francis.

Greening, J. & B. Lynn (1998). Vibration sense in the upper limb in patients with repetitive strain injury and a group of at-risk office workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 71, 29-34

Karlqvist, L.K., Hagberg, M., Köster, M., Wenemark, M., & Ånell, R. (1996). Musculoskeletal symptoms among computer-assisted design operators and evaluation of a self-assessment questionnaire. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2, 185-194.

Kompier, M. & Levi, L. (1994). Stress at Work: Causes, Effects and Prevention. Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

Linton, S. & Kamwendo, K. (1989). Risk factors in the psychological work environment for neck and shoulder pain in secretaries. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 31(7), 609-613.

Lundborg, G., Gelberman, R., Minteer-Convery, M., Lee, Y. and Hargens, A., (1982). Median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel - functional response to experimentally induced controlled pressure, Journal of Hand Surgery, 7, 252-258.

Peper, E. (1994). Use of applied psychophysiology and biofeedback with repetitive strain injury associated with video terminal display work. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium of the Physical Medicine Research Foundation. Vancouver, B.C.

Peper, E., & Gibney, K. H. (1997). Computer solutions to computer pain: How to stay healthy at the computer with email tips.Ô BMUG Fall ’97 Newsletter, XIII (2), 174-175. Berkeley: Peachpit Press.

Peper E. & Harvey, R. (1996). The role of applied psychophysiology in ergonomics, assessment and prevention of computer-related disorders. Proceedings of the International Congress on Stress and Health. Sidney, (p 51). Australia: The University of Sydney.

Peper, E., Harvey, R., & Shumay, D. (1997). How to use applied psychophysiology/biofeedback in the prevention and assessment of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In: Salvendy, G., Smith, M. J. and Koubek, R.J. (eds). Design of Computing Systems: Cognitive Considerations (pp. 551-554). New York: Elsevier.

Peper, E., Wilson, V.S., Taylor, W., Pierce, A., Bender, K., & Tibbetts, V. (1994). Repetitive Strain Injury. Prevent computer user injury with biofeedback: Assessment and training protocol. Physical Therapy Products, 5(5), 17-22.

Rossignol, A.M., Morse, E.P., Summers, V.M., Pagnotto, & L.D. Video (1987). Display terminal use and reported health symptoms among massachusetts clerical workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 29, 112-118.

Sauter, S., Hales, T., Bernard, B., Fine, L, Petersen, M., Putz-Anderson, V., Schleiffer, L., & Ochs, T. (1993). Summary of two NIOSH field studies of musculoskeletal disorders and VDT work among telecommunications and newspaper workers. In: Luczak, H., Cakir, A. & Cakir, G. (Eds.) Work with display Units (pp. 229-234). Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V.

Schleifer, L. M. & Ley, R. (1994). End-tidal PCO2 as an index of psychophysiological activity during VDT data-entry work and relaxation. Ergonomics, 37(2), 245-254.

Seradge, H., Jia, Y. Owens, W., 1995, In vivo measurement of carpal tunnel pressure in the functioning hand, Journal of Hand Surgery, 20A, 855-859.

Sharma, S. D. et al (1997). Thermografic changes in keyboard operators with chronic forearm pain. BMJ, 314, 118.

Shieh, K-K. and Chen, M-T. (1997). Effects of Screen Color and Combination, Work-Break Schedule, and Workplace on VDT Viewing Distance. Int. Journal of Ind. Ergonomics, 20, 11-18

Shumay, D. & Peper, E. (1997). Healthy Computing: A comprehensive group training approach using biofeedback. In: Salvendy, G., Smith, M. J. and Koubek, R.J. (eds). Design of Computing Systems: Cognitive Considerations, (pp. 555-558). New York: Elsevier.

Shumay, D.M., Peper, E., & Tibbetts, V. (1995). Lack of Muscle Awareness at The Workstation: Implications for repetitive strain injury. Fifth International Conference on Stress Management Book of Abstracts (p 128). Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.

Skubick, D., Clasby, R., Donaldson, S. & Marshall, W. (1993). Carpal Tunnel Syndrome as an expression of muscular dysfunction in the neck. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 3, 31-44.

Straker, L. M., et al. (1997). The Effect of Shoulder Posture on Performance, Discomfort and Muscle Fatigue Whilst Working on a Visual Display Unit. Int. Journal of Ind. Ergonomics, 20, 1-10.

Waersted, M. and Westgaard, R.H. (1997). An Experimental Study of the Shoulder Muscle activity and Posture in a Paper Version Versus a VDU Version of the Monotonous Work Task. Int. Journal of Ind. Ergonomics, 19, 175-185.

Pointing Devices

Fernstrom, E., & Ericson, M.O. (1997). Computer Mouse or Trackpoint Effects on the Muscular Load and Operator Experience. Applied Ergonomics 28(5/6), 347-354.

Harvey, R. & Peper, E. (1997). Surface Electromyography and Mouse Use in Position. Ergonomics, 40(8), 781-789.

Wrist Rests

Brain, W.R., Wright, A.D., Wilkinson, M. (1947). Spontaneous compression of both median nerves in the carpal tunnel. The Lancet, March, pp. 277-282.

Hedge, A., McCrobie, D., & Morimoto, S., 1995, Beneficial effects of a preset tiltdown keyboard system on posture and comfort in offices. Available from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401.

Lundborg, G., Gelberman, R., Minteer-Convery, M., Lee, Y., & Hargens, A., 1982, Median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel - Functional response to experimentally induced controlled pressure, Journal of Hand Surgery, 7, 252 - 258.

Matsen, F. 1980, Compartmental Syndromes (pp 45-63). New York: Grune and Stratton.

Paul, R., & Menon, K.K. (1994). Ergonomic evaluation of wrist pads, In Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 2, (pp. 204-207). Toronto: Canada.

Rempel, D., Horrie, S., 1994, Effect of wrist posture during typing on carpal tunnel pressure. In Grieco, A., Molteni, G.,Ochchipinti, E.; Piccoli, B., Editors. Working with display units, ’94, Proceedings or the Fourth International Scientific Conference, 3. (Milan: University of Milan), C27-C28.

Rempel, D., Manojlvic, R., Levinsohn, D.G., Bloom, T., Gordon, L. (1994). Effect of keyboard wrist rest on carpal tunnel pressure. In Working With Display Units, ’94, Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Conference, by Grieco, A., Molteni, G., Ochchipinti, E., Piccoli, B., (eds.) (University of Milan, Milan), pp. C29-C30.


Boucsein, W., & Thum, M. (1997). Design of Work/Rest Schedules for Computer Work Based on Psychophysiological Recovery Measures. Int. Journal of Ind. Ergonomics, 20, 51-57.

Henning R.A. , E.A. Callaghan, A.M. Oretega, G.V. Kissel, J.I. Guttman and H.A. Braun, (July 1996) Continuous feedback to promote self-management of rest breaks during computer use. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 18(1).

Henning, R.A., G.V. Kissel, D.C. Maynard, (October, 1994) Compensatory rest breaks for VDT operators. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 14(3),   243-249.

Henning, R.A., S.L. Sauter, G. Salvendy, E.F. Krieg. (1989). Microbreak length, performance, and stress in a data entry task. Ergonomics, 32(7), 855-864.

Lee, K.S., A. Waikar. (1991). Types of activities and body parts affected in the recommended exercises for VDT operators. Journal of Human Ergonomics, 20, 13-26.

Lee, K.S., N. Swanson, S. Sauter, R. Wickstrom, A. Waikar, M. Mangum. (1992). A review of physical exercises recommended for VDT operators. Applied Ergonomics, 23(6), 387-408.

Magid, L. J. (October 8, 1997). Turning your office into a strain free environment, Los Angeles Times, p.D5.

Oldenburg, D., (February 25, 1997). Ergonomics boom: a flood of unproven products & services for on the job ailments, The Washington Post, pE5.

Swanson, N.G., S.L. Sauter, L.J. Chapman. (1989). The design of rest breaks for video display terminal work: A review of the relevant literature. In Advances in Industrial Ergonomics and Safety. New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 895-898

Thomas, R. E., R. K. Butterfield, J. N. Hool and R. T. Herrick (1993) Effects of exercise on carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms, Applied Ergonomics, 24(2), 101-108.

Vision/Monitor Placement

American Optometric Association, (1994). Using your eyes and your computer, VL1/10/94. St. Louis, MO: AOA.

ANSI/HFS 100. (1988). American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations, published by the Human Factors Society, Inc., Santa Monica, CA.

CAN/CSA-Z412-M89. (1989). A guideline on office ergonomics. Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario.

Carney, L. G., & Hill, R. M. (1982). The nature of normal blinking patterns. Acta Ophthalmologica, 60, pp. 427-433.

Collins, M., Seeto, R., Campbell, L., & Ross, M. (1989). Blinking and corneal sensitivity. Acta Ophthalmological, 67, pp. 525-531.

Costanza, M. A. (1994). Visual and ocular symptoms related to the use of video display terminals. Journal of Behavioral Optometry, 5 (2), pp. 31-36.

De Wall, M., Van Riel, M. P., Aghina, J. C., Burdof, A., & Snijders, C. J. (1992). Improving the sitting posture of CAD/CAM workers by increasing VDU monitor working height. Ergonomics, 35, pp. 427- 436.

Doane, M. G. (1980). Interaction of eyelids and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eye blink. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 89, pp. 507-516.

Drury, C. (1992). Designing ergonomic studies and experiments. In J. Wilson, & E. Corlett (Eds.), Evaluation of human work (pp. 117-118) . Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis, Inc.

Faucett, J., & Rempel, D. (1986, January). Musculoskeletal Symptoms Related to Video Display Terminal Use. AAOHN Journal, 44(1), pp. 33-39.

Fried, L. (1980). Anatomy of the head, neck, face, and jaws (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lia & Febiger.

Hamilton, N. (1996). Source document position as it affects head position and neck muscle tension. Ergonomics, 39(4), pp. 593-610.

Holly, P. J. (1973). Formation and rupture of the tear film. Experimental Eye Research, 15, pp. 515-525.

Hullley, S., & Cummings, S. (Eds.). (1988). Designing Clinical Research. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Lie, I., & Watten, R. G. (1994). VDT work, oculomotor strain, and subjective complaints: An experimental and clinical study. Ergonomics, 37(8), pp. 1419-1433.

Leavitt, S. (1995). Vision comfort at VDTs ergonomic positions of monitors & work documents. Glenview, IL: Leavitt Medical Communications.

Luckiesh, M., & Moss, F. (1935). The Eyelid Reflex as a Criterion of Ocular Fatigue. Experimental Journal of Psychology, pp. 589-596.

Luckiesh, M., & Moss, F. (1937). The Science of seeing. New York: Van Nostrand.

Lu, H., & Aghazadeh, F. (1993). VDT positions: Effects on performance and comfort. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting, pp. 397-400.

Miyao, M., Hacisalihzade, S., Allen, J. S., & Stark, L. (1989). Effects of VDT resolution on visual fatigue and readability: An eye movement approach. Ergonomics, 32 (6), pp. 603-614.

Morris, T. (1984). Electrooculographic measurement, fatigue and variability of performance in simulated aircraft flight. Dissertation, Texas A&M University. College Station, TX.

Mourant, R., Lakshmanan, R., & Chantadisai, R. (1981). Visual fatigue and Cathode Ray Tube display terminals. Human Factors, 1981 23 (5), pp. 529-540.

Norusis, M. J./SPSS Inc. (1990). SPSS Advanced Statistics User Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.

Norman, G., & Streiner, D. (1994). Biostatistics the bare essentials. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Patel, S., Henderson, R., Bradley, L., Galloway, B. & Hunter, L. (1991). Effects of visual display unit use on blink rate and tear stability. Optometry and Vision Science, 68 (11), pp. 888-892.

Ponder, E., & Kennedy, W. P. (1927). On the act of blinking. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, pp. 89-110.

Prause, J., U., & Norn, M. (1987). Relation between blink frequency and break-up time? Acta Ophthalmologica, 65, pp.19-22.

Resko, D. R., & Mansfield, P. K. (1987). Video Display Terminals: How they affect the health of clerical workers. AAOHN Journal, 35 (7), pp. 310-314.

Saito, S., Sotoyama, M., Suzuki, T., Saito, Sh., & Taptagaporn, S. (1993) . Vertical gaze direction and eye movement analysis for a comfortable VDT workstation design. Work with display units ’92. Elsevier Sci. Publ., pp. 110-114.

Sheedy, J., & Parsons, S. (1990). The video display terminal eye clinic: Clinical report. Optometry & Vision Science, 67, pp. 622-626.

Shurts, G., & Bommarito, P. (1996, March). Vision: The forgotten ergonomics issue. Professional Safety Journal, pp. 40-41.

Smith, M. J., Cohen, B. G., & Stammerjohn, L. W. (1981). An Investigation of health complaints and job stress in video display operations. Human Factors, 23, pp. 395-396.

Sotoyama, M., Villanueva, M. B., Jonai, H., & Saito, S. (1995). Ocular surface area as an informative index of visual ergonomics. Industrial Health, 1995, 33, pp.43-56.

Stern, J. A. (1994). Blink rate: A possible measure of fatigue. Human Factors, 1994, 36 (2), pp.285-297.

Sun, W. S., Baker, R. S., Chuke, J. C., Rouholiman, B. R., Hasan, S. A., Gaza, W., Stava, M. W., & Porter, J. D. (1997). Age-related changes in human blinks. Passive and active changes in eyelid kinematics. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 1997, 38 (1), pp.92-99.

Thygesen, J. E. M., Bach, B., Molhave, L., Pedersen, O., Prause, J., & Skov, P. (1986). Tear fluid electrolytes and Albumin in persons under environmental stress. Environmental Research, 1986, pp. 60-65.

Tsubota , K., & Nakamori, K. (1993, February). Dry eyes and Video display terminals. The New England Journal of Medicine, p. 584.

Villanueva, M. B., Jonai, H., Sotoyama, M., Hisanaga, N., Takeuchi, Y., & Saito, S. (1997). Sitting posture and neck and shoulder muscle activities at different screen height settings of the visual display terminal. Industrial Health, 35, pp. 330-336.

Villanueva, M. B., Sotoyama, M., Jonai, H., Takeuchi, Y., & Saito, S. (1996). Adjustments of posture and viewing parameters of the eye to changes in the screen height of the visual display terminal. Ergonomics, 39 (7), pp. 933-945.

Yaginuma, Y., Yamada, H., & Nagai, H. (1990). Study of the relationship between lacrimation and blink in VDT work. Ergonomics, 33 (6), pp. 799-809.

Effects of Vertical Viewing Angle and Eye Blink Rate During Computer Work
Sol Elvira Solorzano
San Jose State University
Lawrence Livermore Laboratories


The effects of vertical viewing angles and eye blinking rate during computer work were investigated. Twenty subjects read from a computer screen set at viewing angles 15° above eye level, eye level, 15° below eye level, and 30° below eye level. Eye blinks during tasks were measured by electrooculography. Subjective ratings on visual and musculoskeletal strain were obtained. Test hypotheses were: (a) blink rate does not change with variations of viewing angle, (b) blink rate does not change with time-on-task, and (c) there is no interaction effects on blink rate between viewing angle and time-on- task. The results were blink rate increases as the viewing angle approaches eye level, and blink rate increases with time-on-task. No significant interaction was found between viewing angle and time-on-task on blink rate. Results and subjecting ratings support recommendations of VDT viewing angle range near 15° below eye level.

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Last Updated: 10/05/99