Keyboard Research References 


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Alden, D.G., Daniels, R.W., & Kanarick, A.F. (1972). Keyboard design and operation: A review of the major issues. Human Factors, 14, 275-293.

Armstrong, T.J., Foulke, J.A., & Martin, B.J. (1994). Investigation of applied forces in alphanumeric keyboard work. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 55, 30-35.

Bailey, R.W. (1982). Human Performance Engineering: A guide for system designers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Barton, P.H., 1986, The development of a new keyboard for outward sorting foreign mail. ImechE, 57-63.

Bringham, F.R., & Clark, N. (1986). Comparison of initial learning and acceptance: STR ergonomic keyboard vs. standard keyboard, (653-ITT-00894), Essex, England: ITT Europe.

Buesen, J. (1984). Product development of an ergonomic keyboard. Behavior and Information Technology, 3 (4), 387-390.

Conrad, R. & Longman, D.S.A, 1965, Standard typewriter vs. chord keyboard: an experimental comparision. Ergonomics,8, 77-88.

Cooper, W.E. (1983). Cognitive aspects of skilled typewriting. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Creamer, L.R., & Trumbo, D.A. (1960). Multifinger tapping performance as a function of the direction of tapping movements. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44, 376-380.

Cushman, W.H. and Rosenberg, D.J., (1991). Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics 14: Human Factors in Product Design. New York: Elsevier. pp. 179-193.

Douglas, S.D., & Happ, A.J. (1993). Evaluating performance, discomfort, and subjective preference between computer keyboard designs. In G.Salvendy and M.J. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 1064-1069. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Duncan, J., & Ferguson, D. (1994). Keyboard operating posture and symptoms in operating. Ergonomics, 17, 651-652.

Ferguson, D., & Duncan, J. (1994). Keyboard design and operating posture. Ergonomics, 17, 731-744.

Fernstrom, E., Ericson, M. O., & Malker, H. (1994). Electromyographic activity during typewriter and keyboard use. Ergonomics, 37 (3),477-484.

Gerard M.J., Jones, S.K., Smith, L.A., Thomas, R.E., & Wang, T. (1994). An ergonomic evaluation of the kinesis ergonomic computer keyboard. Ergonomics. 37, 1661-1668.

Grandjean, E. (1988). Fitting the Task to the Man: A Textbook of Occupational Ergonomics. New York: Taylor & Francis. pp 77-81.

Grandjean, E., Nakaseko, M., Hunting, W., & Laubli, T. (1981). Ergonomische Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung einer neuen Tastatur fur Buromaschinen (A new keyboard for office machines). Zeitschrift fur Arbeitswissenschaft, 35, 221-226.

Grant, A.H. (1990). Homo quintadus, computers and ROOMS (repetitive ocular orthopedic motion stress. Optometry and Vision Science, 67, 297-305.

Hedge, A., McCrobie, D., Land, B., Morimoto, S. & Rodriguez, S. (1995) Healthy keyboarding: effects of wrist rests, keyboard trays, and a preset tiltdown system on wrist posture, seated posture, and musculoskeletal discomfort. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, 366-368. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Hobday, S.W. (1988). A keyboard to increase productivity and reduce postural stress. In F. Aghazadeh (Ed.), Trends in Ergonomics/Human Factors V (pp. 321-330). New York: North-Holland.

Honan, M., Serina, E., Tal, R., & Rempel, D. (1995) Wrist postures while typing on a standard and split keyboard. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting pp. 366-368. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Human Factors Society (1988) ANSI/HFES 100-1988: American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (pp. 35-40). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Hunting, W., Nakaseko, M., Gierer, R., & Grandjean, E. (1982). Ergonomische Gestaltung von alphanumerischen Tastaturen (Ergonomic design of alphanumeric keyboards). Sozial-und Praventivmedizin, 27, 251-252.

IBM. (1984). Human Factors of Workstations with Visual Displays (pp. 40-41). San Jose, CA: Author.

Ilg, R. (1987). Ergonomic keyboard design. Behavior and Information Technology, 6, 303-309.

Jahns, D.W., Litewka, J., Lunde, S.A., Farrand, W.P., & Hargreaves, W.R. (1991). Learning curve and performance analysis for the Kinesis™ ergonomic keyboard--a pilot study. Presented as a poster at the HFS 35th Annual Meeting (San Francisco, CA, September 2-6, 1991). Copies available from Kinesis.

Jancsurak, J.(1993). Marquardt keyboard shows it’s time to split. Appliance Manufacturer, 41 (8), 31.

Jewell, M. (1995, November 6). Ergonomic keyboards find niche. San Francisco Chronicle.

Klockenberg, E.A.(1926). Rationalisierung der Schreibmaschine und ihrer Bedienung (Rationalization of typewriters and their operation). Berlin: Springer.

Kroemer, K.H.E. (1972) Human engineering the keyboard. Human Factors, 14, 51-63.

Kroemer, K.H.E. (1993, March). Fitting the workplace to the human and not vice versa. Industrial Engineering, 56-61

Lockhead, G.R. & Klemmer, E.T. (1959, November). An evaluation of an 8-key wordwritting typewriter (IBM Research Report RC-180). Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM Research Center.

Lopez, M.S. (1993). An ergonomic evaluation of the design and performance of four keyboard models and their relevance to carpal tunnel syndrome, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Loricchio, D.F. (1992). Key force and typing performance. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting pp. 281-282. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Lu, C. (1983). Will there ever be an efficient keyboard? High Technology, January 1983, 22-23.

Lueder, K.K. (1985). How to use computers without using keyboards. Office Ergonomics Review, 2(1), 22-24.

Lyon, B.K. (1992, June). Video display terminal ergonomics. Professional Safety, 32-39.

Marek, T., Noworol, C., Wos, H., Karwowski, W., & Hamiga, K. (1992). Muscular loading and subjective ratings of muscular tension by novices when typing with standard and split-design computer keyboards, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 4, 387-394.

McAlindon, P.J. (1994). The development and evaluation of the keybowl: A study on an ergonomically designed alphanumeric input device. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting (pp. 320-324). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

McAtamney, L. and Corlett, E.N. (1993). RULA: a survey method for the investigation of work-related upper limb disorders, Applied Ergonomics, 24(2), 91-99.

Morelli, D.L., Johnson, P.W., Reddell, C.R., & Lau, P. (1995). User preferences between keyboards while performing "real" work. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting pp. 361-365. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Morita, M. (1989). Development of new keyboard optimized from standpoint of ergonomics. In M.J. Smith and G. Salvendy (Eds.), Work With Computers; Organizational, Management, Stress and Health Aspects (pp. 595-603). New York: Elsevier.

Nakaseko, M., Hunting, W., Gierer, R., & Grandjean, E. (1982). Ergonomic development of a new keyboard design. In Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (pp. 176-177).

Nakaseko, M., Grandjean, E., Hunting, W., & Gierer, R. (1985). Studies on ergonomically designed alphanumeric keybords. Human Factors, 27, 175-187.

Noyes, J. (1983) The QWERTY keyboard: A review. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 265-281.

Pan, C.S., Swanson, N.G., Galinsky, T.L., & Steward, L.L. (1994). Role of the keyboard design in performance, musculoskeletal discomfort and fatigue. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Vol. 2. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Potosnak, K.M. (1990). Keys and keyboards. In M. Helander (Ed.), Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 475-494). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Rose, M.J. (1991, June). Keyboard operating posture and actuation force: implications for muscle over-use. Applied Ergonomics, 198-204.

Rempel, D., Smutz, W.P., So, Y. and Armstrong, T.J. (1994) Effect of fingertip loading on carpal tunnel pressure. Transactions of the 40th Annual Meeting, Orthopaedic Research Society, February 21-24, 1994, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Seibel, R. (1963). Discrimination reaction time for a 1,023-alternative task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 215-226.

Seibel, R. (1964). Data entry through cord, parallel entry devices. Human Factors, 6, 189-192.

Seibel, R. (1972). Data entry devices and procedures. In R.G. Kinkade & H.S. Van Cott (Eds.), Human engineering guide to equipment design. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Smith, W.J., & Cronin, D.T. (1993). Ergonomic test of the kinesis keyboard. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society (pp. 318-322). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Smutz, P., Serina, E., & Rempel, D. (1994). A system for evaluating the effect of keyboard design on force, posture, comfort and productivity. Ergonomics, 37,1649-1660.

Sommerich, C.M. (1994). Carpal tunnel pressure during typing: effects of wrist posture and typing speed. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Vol. 1. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Sommerich, C.M., Marras, W.S. & Parnianpour, M. (1995) Activity of index finger muscles during typing. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, 620-623. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Szmanda, J., and Szmanda, W. (1992). The Health Care Keyboard positioned for comfort. In Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins National Search for Computing Applications to Assist Persons with Disabilities (pp. 161-164). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Tessler, F.N. (1993). The Apple adjustable: The deficiencies of Apple’s new keyboard outweigh its ergonomic advantages. Macworld, 10 (11), 102-105.

Thompson, D.A., Thomas, J., Cone, J., Daponte, A., & Markison, R. (1990). Analysis of the TONY!™ variable geometry VDT keyboard. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 34th Annual Meeting (pp. 365-369). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.

Weiss, N.D., Bloom, T., Gordon, L., & Rempel D. (1992). Wrist Position Of Lowest Carpal Tunnel Pressure: A New Method To Measure Intracarpal Pressure As A Function Of Wrist Position. Phoenix, AR: American Society for Surgery of the Hand.

Zipp, P., Haider, E., Halpern, N., & Rohmert, W. (1983). Keyboard design through physiological strain measurements. Applied Ergonomics, 14, 117-122.

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Last Updated: 10/05/99